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News Literacy

Know where you information is sourced and the authority behind it!


"As being discrete, objective facts or observations, which are unorganized and unprocessed and therefore have no meaning or value because of lack of context and interpretation."  Rowley, Jennifer; Richard Hartley (2008). Organizing Knowledge: An Introduction to Managing Access to Information, 4th ed. Ashgate, 2008.

"Data is defined as a symbol that represents a property of an object, event, or of their environment.  It is the product of observation but is of no use until it is in a usable (that is , relevant) form." Ackoff (1989)

"Information is inferred from data." Ackoff (1989)

"Is that which is obtained by the processing of data." ~Oxford English Dictionary.

The study of knowledge is known as Epistemology. 

"Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as factsinformationdescriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning." ~Wikidipedia

"Knowledge is the apprehension of fact or truth with the mind; clear and certain perception of fact or truth; the state or condition of knowing fact or truth." ~Oxford English Dictionary

"Capacity of judging rightly in matters relating to life and conduct; soundness of judgment in the choice of means and ends; sometimes, less strictly, sound sense, esp. in practical affairs: opp. to folly." ~Oxford English Dictionary

Knowledge Pyramid

created by: Phil McCrea (

Misinformation, Disinformation & Propaganda

Misinformation is wrong or misleading information.  ~Oxford English Dictionary

An example of misinformation from the Pew Research Institute "Bots in the Twittersphere"

Disinformation is false information deliberately and often covertly spread (as by the planting of rumors) in order to influence public opinion or obscure the truth. ~Oxford English Dictionary

Propaganda is intentionally designed communication that invites us to respond emotionally, immediately, and in an either/or manner. 

~Neil Postman

Disinformation & Propaganda example: A Twitter post from October 7, 2018 takes Nancy Pelosi's June 22, 2017 C-Span comments out of their original context and flips them over to create a falsehood applied to the Kavanaugh SCOTUS confirmation hearing to influence public opinion.



Barstow, David. Deep Fakes: Believe at Your Own Risk. The New York Times Weekly. November 22, 2019, Updated January 7, 2020. (

Coppins, McKay.  The 2020 Disinformation War.  Atlantic. February 10, 2020.